Accession Number: NEKHC:2013.21

Object: Certificate

Category: Refugee; Ellen Rawson; Kindertransport; Life before the Holocaust.

Physical Description: Paper, printed ink, pen.

Information on Item: This swimming certificate forms part of the Ellen Rawson Collection. It was awarded to Ellen on 9 July 1934. 

Image Use: Use of images owned by the National Holocaust Centre and Museum is governed by our Terms and Conditions.


This swimming certificate forms part of the Ellen Rawson Collection, Ellen was born in 1922 in Königsberg, East Prussia. The family lived there happily during Ellen’s early childhood. They kept many of the Jewish holidays, and religion was an important part of family life. It records that Ellen Herrmann, Ellen's maiden name, achieved the Skull and Crossbones Swimming Certificate on 9 July 1934. Ellen enjoyed swimming as a child, and often went swimming during holidays and for fun. As the family were Jewish, their business and home was taken from them during the Holocaust. Ellen survived as she was sent away from the increasing persecution to England on the Kindertransport, however her parents were murdered by the Nazi regime.